The Debate over Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade

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Now available online at the New Internationalist shop. The sales of this film will be used to provided free copies to Southern and grassroots groups. If you would like to receive a free copy of the documentary for review, film festival screening or you are from a grassroots group please contact us. What is the Kyoto Protocol?

Carbon Offsets and Human Rights Abuses. The Protocol sets the target of reducing emissions by an average of 5. Emissions trading, the main mechanism for achieving this target, was pushed by the US in response to heavy corporate lobbying.

What what is carbon trading and kyoto protocol rights to pollute and how can they be traded? These permits are measured in units of carbon dioxide, one of the main greenhouse gases. One ton of what is carbon trading and kyoto protocol dioxide equals one permit. The credits are licenses to pollute up to the limits set by the commitment to reach the average reduction of 5. The countries then allocate the permits to the most polluting industries, most commonly for free. In this system the polluter is rewarded.

There are several ways in which the industries can then a best in class broker to trade binary options the permits: If the polluter does what is carbon trading and kyoto protocol use its entire allowance, it can either save the remaining permits for the next time period bank themor sell then to another polluter on the market.

If the polluter uses up its allowance in the allotted time period, but pollutes more, it must buy permits from another polluter that has not used up its full allowance. Projects which take place in countries with reduction targets come under Joint Implementation JI. CDM and JI projects can take a variety of forms: The amount of credits earned by each project is calculated as the difference between the level what is carbon trading and kyoto protocol emissions with the project and the level of emissions that would occur in an imagined alternative future without the project.

This approach encourages assumptions of what would have happened in the future without the project, if it would have involved the highest possible emissions. The bigger the hypothetical emissions, the bigger the reductions that can be claimed and the larger the volume of credits that can be sold. It is impossible to verify how many emissions would have been generated without the project.

That is a good thing, right? Trees do absorb carbon dioxide, but they also release carbon dioxide. Measuring exactly how much is soaked up and how much is released over the lifetime of what is carbon trading and kyoto protocol tree is difficult enough — when trying to do these measurements for complex forests or even a whole tree plantation, it becomes impossible. It has been shown that diverse, old-growth forests have a far greater capacity than monoculture plantations to absorb more carbon dioxide than they give off.

Plantations also have many serious other negative impacts on biodiversity, the climate and the communities who live nearby that are not reflected in carbon calculations. Is Plantar in the market now? Plantar tried unsuccessfully three times to register its plantations and industrial processes as part of the CDM so that it could start generating lucrative carbon credits.

Previously, a proposal was to grow eucalyptus plantations that could be used for the production of charcoal as a means of avoiding coal mining. This is just one example among many of large-scale corporate polluters gaining both profits and environmental legitimacy at the expense of local communities on the international carbon market. The combination of local and international resistance to such projects are vital in highlighting both the injustice perpetuated by carbon trading, and its ineffectiveness of dealing with the threat of climate change.

Resistance inside Brazil and at the international level put pressure on the UN to continue to reject these applications until recently.

But continued resistance is necessary to ensure that companies like Plantar are kept out and that carbon trading as a solution to climate change is further challenged and eventually rejected. What does the World Bank have what is carbon trading and kyoto protocol do with it? The What is carbon trading and kyoto protocol Bank Prototype Carbon Fund PCFwhich was launched ininvests money from companies and governments in projects designed to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases and generate credits that can then be sold on the carbon market.

The bank has become the largest public broker of carbon purchases, and makes a substantial profit from the commission that it receives from the sale of the credits generated by the projects. In the World Bank entered into an agreement to purchase emissions reductions from the Plantar project.

There was a lot of pressure for the Plantar project to be accepted under the CDM so that it would generate more carbon profits for both Plantar and the World Bank. Pollution trading is not a solution to climate change! Carbon trading is an elaborate means of dangerously delaying the changes that need to happen in the transition to a global, low-carbon economy.

These changes are simple enough in theory, namely, reducing our energy use, switching away from fossil fuels and towards equitable, and justice-based models of renewable energy production and consumption. In practice, these changes constitute a global challenge that involves social and political change, and encompasses a wide variety of issues including land rights, neo-colonial exploitation, trade and South-North relations.

The South is not a carbon dump for the North and should not be viewed as such. Rebuilding these South-North relationships and addressing historical ecological debt are critical.

The failure of the Kyoto Protocol to deal adequately with climate change is also representative of wider issues of democratic decision-making and symptomatic of the injustices that permeate international relationships between peoples. In this way, climate change can be seen as a window into addressing truly profound social change.

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The compositional and constructional skeletons, which originate mostly from the display surface of the computer (thus most of the images have the same horizontal scale as a monitor), go through an inverse process, as they are being projected onto their physical medium by the artist, his consciousness and his automatic gestures. The system of encrypted Latin letters is re-anthropomorphised in this work by a fusion of figurativeness and abstraction.

The connections reach a new subatomic level in the body of the new paintings, as Uglar unites the infinite aesthetics of cellular automata and fractals through a covalent bond with the neo-constructivist concrete poetry of his text-architecture.